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Final step of downstream processing: Chromatography

In these series of articles, we talked about the steps and stages included in the downstream processing.

The first stage was solid-liquid separation. 2nd step was intracellular products and the 3rd step was to concentrate the required product. In this article, we are going to talk about the last and final step of the downstream processing called chromatography.


Chromatography is the process to purify the concentrated product so as to get its final state. This is done on the bi-products of the 3rd stage solution. downstream processing is incomplete without the chromatography. It also a technique to separate the elements from the compounds whose properties are very much similar to each other and cannot be separated by conventional methods. This phase of downstream processing usually consists of two sub-phases.


  •    Stationary phase
  •    Mobile phase
  1.    Stationary phase:

The stationary phase is the phase where the mixture is loaded into a porous solid matrix in a column then the mobile phase comes into play so that it can be separated.


  1.    Mobile phase:

The mobile phase is continuously repeated so as to get the most out of the stationary phase. The mobile phase is the phase where we get the output in fractions of volumes.


There are many different types of the chromatography techniques that are used:

  1.    Gel-filtration chromatography
  2.    Ion-exchange chromatography
  3.    Affinity chromatography
  4.    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography


This is the complete process of downstream processing. This was the last stage of the downstream processing because we get the desired product here. But to preserve it and care it is another stage. The handling of these products for further use is very important.


There is some process to store these compounds safely:

  1.    Drying
  2.    Spray drying
  3.    Freeze-drying

These were some articles about the downstream processing. Hope these articles help you,

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